SSH alternatives for mobile, high-latency or unreliable connections

A review of the best SSH alternatives for connecting to servers over poor connections.

By David Mytton. Last updated: 2022-04-14.

SSH (Secure Shell) is a network protocol that provides an encrypted channel over the network. It is most commonly used as a way to log into remote systems over the internet, such as servers, but can be used by any network service.

Introduced in 1995, the big difference between SSH and the Telnet services it replaced was the security of public-key cryptography. Most developers will be familiar with generating their local keys, even if just to push code to GitHub, although it is possible (but not recommended) to use password-based logins.

SSH works using a client/server model. The SSH server, usually OpenSSH, runs on the remote system and listens on port 22 for incoming connections from clients. OpenSSH also provides the client software to allow users to connect to the server, but alternative clients exist, such as PuTTY on Windows.

SSH is the best option in most cases. It is widely used, usually installed by default, and clients exist for every platform. However, there are a few cases where you may want to consider an SSH alternative. I was recently looking for ways to solve these edge cases. These are my notes on alternative SSH servers.

Problems with SSH

Last year I switched to Linux. still do the majority of my development locally but I am tempted by the lure of cloud-based environments like GitHub Codespaces or Gitpod. Having multiple, isolated environments ready-configured for each coding project helps separate dependencies, speeds up the initial bootstrapping, and means I can code from any machine.

However, I want to keep my text/terminal-based workflow. VS Code is a great product, but I prefer Neovim. I am therefore experimenting with running my development on a remote server with isolated containers that I connect to from my computer.

SSH works by interactively forwarding the keyboard presses to the remote server, only displaying the result in the client when the server has acknowledged them. This works well on fast, low-latency connections, but breaks down if either the server or connection performance degrade. The client will also disconnect if your IP address changes, or there is a temporary loss of connectivity. Anyone who has tried to SSH into a server over a mobile network or tried to debug a server under heavy load will have experienced this.

Connecting via 3G or even 4G networks has long been an edge case. Most development has been done locally and directly debugging servers has become less common as they are treated more as cattle not pets. But as cloud performance has improved and connection speeds have increased (5G is rolling out and Starlink is being deployed), coding on a remote server is gaining popularity. This will most likely be through browser-based IDEs like Codespaces or Gitpod, but there will always be some like me who want to connect via their terminal console.

SSH will always be the default on robust connections, but I wanted to investigate alternatives that are better suited for slow, mobile, and/or high-latency connections. Whilst I am looking for an SSH alternative, I am not actually looking for a replacement SSH server as such. Indeed, there are several SSH server alternatives such as wolfSSH, Dropbear, or Teleport.

They are all open-source and have specific reasons to choose them over OpenSSH e.g. Dropbear is designed for embedded systems. Instead, the SSH alternative I am looking for is more to do with the transport layer. It needs to be able to deal with high-latency, disconnects, packet loss, or otherwise unreliable connectivity. Or, the interactive keyboard design needs to be reconsidered - sending the key press and waiting for a response before that press is shown on the client only works well if connectivity is good.

So what are the options?

SSH alternative: Mosh

Mosh (mobile shell) is a remote shell that maintains the link between connections. It removes typing lag by using a prediction engine, so is ideal for high-latency scenarios.

Key features

  • Automatically handles reconnects when IPs change, such moving between Wi-Fi networks or on mobile devices.
  • Reconnects automatically if the internet connection drops, or if you simply put your laptop to sleep.
  • Instant response when typing by not waiting for the server to reply to interactive keyboard presses.
  • Client and server can be run by unprivileged users.

Mosh uses SSH to establish the connection (thereby not rewriting the authentication process), but then establishes a connection to the remote Mosh server instance so it can do its magic.

It implements a new protocol called State Synchronization Protocol that uses encrypted datagrams over UDP. By using sequence numbers, it can track what has and hasn’t been received by the server without waiting for acknowledgement as with TCP. The client shows when there is a delay in echoing the reply from the server, but only in high latency scenarios, which is fun to occasionally see show up in the UI.

A graph of keystroke response time: Mosh vs SSH.

Cumulative distribution of keystroke response times: Mosh vs SSH. From:

The main downside with Mosh is that it emulates the terminal remotely and only sends the visible state of the terminal back to the client. This means if you have a lot of output from a command, you will only be able to see the result that would have been visible in the terminal. This is known as the scrollback buffer. It’s a known limitation in Mosh because it focuses on efficiency and solving issues with poor connectivity, so it makes sense to only send the visible portion of the terminal.

The recommended solution is to use tmux, which can handle the scrollback for you. However, tmux waits for the remote server to send the new screen contents which somewhat defeats the purpose of Mosh. Mosh removes any latency by not waiting for the remote server, but using scrollback through tmux adds that latency back in. Mosh also does not support tmux control mode, which is a nice feature if you want native windowing.

Unfortunately, this is considered low priority by the Mosh developers, and since the issue has been unresolved since 2012, and the developers say they have no intention of fixing it, then it looks like this is simply a design choice.

Another problem with Mosh is the release cadence. Whilst there seems to be ongoing development in the public GitHub repo, the last release was Jul 2017. Software can be “done”, but no releases for years seems suspicious.

SSH alternative: Eternal Terminal

Eternal Terminal is very similar to Mosh. It establishes a connection using SSH and then launches and reconnects to the ET server. It uses TCP but keeps track of the number of bytes sent and read, re-syncing the state if it needs to reconnect, similar to a resumable connection.

Key features

  • Automatically handles reconnects when IPs change, such moving between Wi-Fi networks or on mobile devices.
  • Reconnects automatically if the internet connection drops.
  • Works much better with tmux.
  • Supports native scrollback.

ET does not solve problems with latency. Any connection lag will be visible in the ET session because it is still waiting for the server to reply to the interactive keyboard. ET is focused on the disconnection problem, which means it is a solution to SSH sessions being killed by roaming or connection failures. Mosh echos them locally and then “catches up” with the remote server. ET still echos them remotely.

Like Mosh, ET is also a client/server implementation that relies on SSH to establish the connection and then authenticate. From the website:

Eternal TCP implements a BackedReader class that keeps track of the number of bytes read (called the sequence number) and, upon reconnect, informs the other party of the sequence number. The BackedWriter class keeps an encrypted buffer of the last N bytes sent and the sequence number. Upon reconnect, the BackedWriter receives the sequence number from the BackedReader and re-sends the last M bytes, where M is the difference between the sequence numbers of the writer and the reader.

Due to the support for native scrollback by streaming the session, you can get full access to the terminal output. Indeed, ET is specifically recommended by the iTerm developers for use with tmux because of this feature - tmux is not designed for use over a tunnelled terminal like Mosh.


In most scenarios, connecting over SSH is the best choice. It is supported on all important platforms and is well understood by most developers. Everyone has SSH keys so if you’re on a stable, low-latency connection then you might as well just connect via SSH. Using tmux will ensure that your session configuration remains running on the remote server even if you do disconnect.

Eternal Terminal can augment your fast connection by providing reliability. If you work from a wired broadband connection then high latency and packet loss are unlikely. You’re more likely to encounter disconnects, which is where ET provides a solution. If you are investing in remote development environments then ET is the best choice because of its support for native scrollback. If you are using a terminal that supports tmux control mode, like iTerm2, it’s the only choice.

However, if your connection is also high latency as well as unreliable, Mosh is the right choice. Authentication is still handled by SSH but the ongoing connectivity is handled by the UDP Mosh protocol. If you expect a low quality connection on mobile, or from a cafe or hotel, Mosh’s ability to echo the commands locally with no lag is ideal.

Unfortunately, there is no SSH alternative that covers both high latency and reliability, if you want to maintain the scrollback. Perhaps an opportunity for a new project?

Other useful tools

  • Guardian Agent: SSH forwarding means you can remotely connect on to other systems over SSH without needing to install Mosh on every one of them.
  • iTerm2 Tmux Integration: How to get your iTerm2 client set up with control mode so that you can use the native windowing on macOS as if they were tmux windows.
  • Blink: An SSH app for iOS and iPad that supports Mosh.
  • Awesome SSH: A collection of other tools and resources for SSH e.g. tools tunnelling over SSH, networking tools, wrappers, bastion servers, etc.

About the author

David Mytton is co-founder of Console. From 2009-2018, David was CEO at Server Density, a SaaS monitoring startup used by hundreds of customers to collect billions of time series metrics. He is also a researcher in sustainable computing at Uptime Institute and affiliated with Imperial College London. David has been a developer for 15+ years.