Interview with
Ev Kontsevoy

CEO, Teleport

Open source access control plane.


What is Teleport? Why did you build it?

Teleport is an open source project that's built for engineers. It is the easiest, most secure, way to access all computing infrastructure.

Today, developers run applications and deploy them to the cloud, and into staging and production environments on Amazon, Google, Azure and many other places. If you look into these environments, they're composed of layers and layers of technology. This is why we call them tech stacks. You have some kind of API to orchestrate virtual servers, they then have containers, and then you have things like Kubernetes to orchestrate containers. You also have things like Docker registries, databases, Grafana dashboards, Jenkins, and so on.

Every layer listens on a network socket, every layer needs encryption, every layer has its own user management login, its own authorization mechanism, and its own audit system.

If you want to do cloud computing today you have to configure all of these layers. You have to have the expertise. That is incredibly painful and extremely prone to user errors. That's the problem Teleport solves. We give you one place where you can configure access to everything you have. That's why we built it - because setting up access is dangerous, scary, annoying, and time-consuming.

Teleport is an open source project. We started to scratch our own itch, and then eventually it became popular and became a commercial product. Developers would be used to just SSHing, which is relatively straightforward if it's just a key. However, if you go all the way to the other extreme - to a big enterprise deployment with lots of different security requirements like single sign-on, the idea is to solve that gap all the way to just a single server.

That said, I would argue that even with accessing a single server, most people are not doing it properly. For example, when you say there is just the key, you need to question where do you keep the key? How do you make sure your key is secure? How do you deal with key distribution? If you have five servers, and you have multiple people who need to access these servers, then what if you need to prove that certain things happen or did not happen in the past?

We've seen companies doing all sorts of crazy things. They would have a private Git repository that they would use to store keys that they try to encrypt, and then the credentials for that repository would be stored in something like 1Password. Those are the kinds of contraptions that most engineers are building to solve the access problem, and that is just SSH!

What if I need a different type of access? If I have interns and software engineers, what is the difference between those two? I would argue this is not just for big enterprises, even if you're a tiny company of five people and you bring in a contractor, how do you manage the key for that contractor?

This is the problem that Teleport solves. We're basically saying: "No, SSH keys are not secure." Keys of any kind, passwords, keys - so-called static credentials - are not secure. Teleport enforces only certificate-based authentication because a certificate is something that's issued to you in real-time just to go get that access. Once you're done then it's revoked.

We made all this extremely convenient. It's actually just as convenient as using a simple SSH key. You can apply rules to your entire fleet - Windows machines, PostgreSQL databases, MySQL, etc. Access is granted across everything as needed, and revoked in real-time at the end.

What would a developer see working with Teleport?

They would probably not interact with Teleport directly. They would be using the same commands as they normally do, such as, SSH, kubectl, psql - all the clients that they would normally run to access infrastructure. It is likely to be the first thing they run in the morning, it will trigger a login sequence where Teleport will pop up the web browser on your machine and then you authenticate through a single sign-on with an SSO provider.

We support all forms of single sign-on (SSO). You can authenticate via GitHub, via Active Directory, whatever your company uses. Teleport will automatically configure your machine with certificates for all the protocols that you need. From that point, all of these command-line tools will continue to work as they normally do, so you don't really feel any difference.

Your permissions will be enforced across all protocols and environments. The cool thing is we will connect you to everything. If you're trying to connect to a Kubernetes cluster that's behind a firewall somewhere, or if you're trying to access some kind of drone that's flying in the sky, like an IoT device, Teleport will create an inverse encrypted tunnel so you'll connect to it. It removes the need for things like VPNs as well.

One interesting way to describe Teleport is it's an interesting cocktail of developer productivity and convenience. It does feel that all of your infrastructure is in the same room as you. That's why it's called Teleport. At the same time, you get industry best practices for security and compliance. Things like PCI, SOC 2, FedRAMP. They're almost free with Teleport.

What does a "day in the life" look like for you?

My morning starts with a good cup of coffee and a bunch of emails - that's probably the first couple of hours in the day, then I try to schedule most of my Zoom calls also in the first half of the day.

Usually I try to skip lunch because we're sitting all day, we don't really need that many calories. I try to make the second half of my day a little bit quieter, so I can do some reading and writing.

The one thing I've had to endure switching from an engineering role to a more business-facing role is to switch from writing in Golang, or Python, or C++ to English. You have to write a lot as CEO. You're writing memos, you're updating the company wiki, you're interacting with investors, you also try to blog. Writing is the predominant way to communicate in a remote-first company. There are just so many different things I could write about. That's a big part of what I do.

Are you still getting time to code regularly?

Not regularly, but I do code, and when this happens it usually happens in large bursts. I don't have commit rights to Teleport core anymore. We're a security company, so every person who has access to Teleport code has to do pull requests and code reviews. I'm excluded from that process now.

The type of coding I'm doing is usually for personal projects. If there is a project, it's a lot of fun to just dive in. Especially over a long weekend to build a tool for myself.

What does the team look like?

It's a fairly typical corporate structure. We have product and engineering, who roll up to the CTO who reports to me. The CMO also reports to me. Then we have sales and operations. Those are the teams that I interact most with.

We run regular one on ones and even randomized one on ones. We use this little cool app called Donut for Slack, where we have regular one on one conversations with randomly selected members of the Teleport team. That's lots of fun because the company is growing quickly. We're adding people from different states, countries, with different backgrounds. It's always something I look forward to.

We're about 130 people now. I just got a notification that said, "Welcome, eight new hires that are joining Teleport today." It’s not every day, but as it's a Monday today, people usually start on Monday.

Is everyone remote?

We are a remote-first company, which means that it doesn't matter where you are to work at Teleport. If you need an office, maybe one day or two days a week, we'll work with you.

Before the pandemic started we signed a lease for a gorgeous place in Downtown Oakland, which right now is used by people who are based in the Bay Area. If they feel like working out of the office they can show up. The number of people who are there varies from four to maybe 15 on a day to day basis.

How did you first get into software development?

I got into software through hardware. When I was a kid I was really interested in electronics, so I started building toys that looked like, audio amplifiers, or really primitive radios.

From there I got exposed to very early primitive computers. Once I got exposed to those computers, I started to tinker with code to make them do things. One of my very early memories of writing code was trying to control the refresh on an old CRT monitor that ended up killing that monitor. That was quite scary because those things used to be expensive back then, especially if you are 14 years old!

Because my early software projects were all about doing fancy things with hardware, I would play with floppy drives that used to go into older machines. You would use them to read or write data and they would make these noises because that's the heads inside of the drive moving. I built something that allowed you to play music by moving them really quickly. To do this I had to learn the Assembly language, which is maybe a somewhat unusual first programming language to learn. All of my programs were basically pranks.

I grew up in what used to be called the Soviet Union, and in the Soviet Union they had this saying that ‘you become a computer scientist only after you fail at being a real scientist’. They basically never treated computer science as its own branch of science, so I applied to a maths program, but we didn't really spend much time in front of computers at school.

Eventually, as probably most of the kids who are really into programming, I tried building my own games. From there I went to C and then C++, and then I started my professional career as a C++ engineer at a company called National Instruments in Austin.

What is the most interesting development challenge you've faced working on Teleport?

The challenges we face today are around how we implement modern identity-based privileges on top of legacy infrastructure. Even if you take SSH as an example, SSH has no concept of role-based access control. The protocol is extremely simple. You get access to a machine as a certain user, then your security model is tied to the UNIX security model.

You get sessions based on that specific user. The access industry is evolving with capabilities like just-in-time access. For example, you're getting access to a device, and then your privilege needs to be elevated or dropped. But SSH by itself has no idea of what role-based access controls are.

Building these innovations on top of legacy protocols, maintaining strict security and compliance requirements and full backward compatibility is extremely challenging. That's why Teleport had to build its own SSH implementation. Our SSH server is fully backward compatible with a traditional OpenSSH. You could use an OpenSSH client to connect to Teleport.

We do a lot more on top of regular SSH that is Teleport specific. On a protocol level, Teleport knows if the machine you're accessing is a staging machine or if it's a production machine. In other words, the identity of hardware is also taken into account where your access is granted or revoked; or keeping track of all of your connections globally across the entire fleet.

For example, if you want to implement certain compliance access controls such as if you take your hands away from the keyboard for a certain amount of time the access needs to be cut globally. Imagine if you're a global company at massive scale, with infrastructure all over the world. Then, if you have a connections going everywhere, they need to be cut right away, across all these different protocols, if your access is revoked

Those are the kind of things that the Teleport team is trying to solve. As we add support for more and more and more protocols it becomes progressively harder. We cannot be in a position where we say, "Hey, here is a feature. But it only works for MySQL, Kubernetes, and Windows, but it does not work for MongoDB, SSH, or some others. We try to have a very elegant compatibility matrix. If Teleport promises a certain capability then it will be enforced for absolutely everything.

What is the tech stack behind Teleport?

Teleport is 100% Golang. It's extremely simple in this way, but it also gives us tremendous advantages. It's much easier to scale an engineering team that's standardized on the same technological base. Also Golang is refreshingly legacy-free.

If you look at languages like Python and Ruby, not the languages themselves, but the implementations that we use; under the hood they still are relying on a lot of legacies. They rely on a lot of older technologies. Even the way they implement crypto, most of them will go to OpenSSL.

They are effectively almost like a language front-end on top of legacy runtime, which creates a certain amount of maintenance. That's one of the reasons why Docker became so popular because packaging applications, moving them around, and dealing with dependencies is just not trivial.

Golang is a clean-sheet implementation. It is statically linked, and the batteries are included. Everything in Golang is written in Golang, including all the crypto. If you look at all the vulnerabilities that are security-related, and you pay attention to the traditional ecosystem-based around the old C runtime, and then compare that to Go, it's a breath of fresh air.

What is the most interesting project you’re playing around with at the moment?

In the last couple of years, I’ve enjoyed taking photos with old film cameras, but you don't always want to print those pictures. Scanning an image from a color negative into a computer file is a surprisingly complicated problem. I've been learning about color theory, about color spaces, and signal processing. Digitizing film is a problem that combines interesting software and hardware challenges. I’ve always been attracted to hardware+software types of problems.

Closer to our industry, at Teleport we are working on a brand new and fascinating open source project. The idea is to imagine a new terminal, which is remote-first. We use terminals all the time in our lives but these are local-first terminals, because they came from the era when all computing was done locally.

What happens when you launch a terminal on your Mac? You get a bash prompt, or whatever shell you're using. You're already logged in and it knows who you are and where it is coming from. There's a context. Your login exists in the context of your machine. There is a session and you are already part of a session. The terminal is tightly integrated into it, but if you need to interact with remote resources it's not as seamless because the context is lost. The terminal doesn't know if you want to connect to a specific Kubernetes cluster on Amazon, or to an SSH machine on Azure, or you need to get into a Postgres database that's in a machine that's sitting right next to you.

You start tinkering with configs, and you need to create a kubeconfig file over here, an .ssh file over there. We have to spend the effort to teach our environment how to connect to all these different things.

If you flip this around and imagine what if there was a terminal, that's a remote-first terminal, so it knows who you are within a global context, such as your identity within a company. Then if you try to get to some other resource anywhere on the internet, that is the context that it will use.

When you launch a remote-first terminal for the first time, there’s a question of what do you get access to right away? It's not going to be localhost, it needs to be something else. We had to rethink all of these concepts, and what does it mean to have a session in a cloud environment?

It's not in a browser, but it is based on web technologies. We want it to feel as native and as inviting as we possibly can. We don't want to be yet another tab in the browser. That is just probably not what most developers would want this thing to be. If your job is to interact with cloud infrastructure, that's probably the first or second most important application on your machine. That's the way we see it.

Slowly but surely, with these cloud technologies, we're now realizing that we’re essentially building the matrix. Mark Zuckerberg made a lot of noise about the Metaverse that they're going to build, but I'm arguing that we've already built it. Every company has built its own Metaverse that probably lives on Amazon somewhere.

The problem with it is that it doesn't really have a single entry point. It consists of dozens, maybe even thousands of little components. Each of them you need to configure to interact with. I am convinced that a remote-first terminal is inevitable. That is the project that I'm fascinated by and we're working on it at Teleport right now.

Describe your computer hardware setup

First of all, I'm not really a laptop person. A laptop for me is a lightweight, “read-only” version of my work environment. Convenient on the go, but I feel limited by laptop screens and keyboards.

When it comes to actually doing work I still tend to use desktops. I try to get the best machine money can buy every five years or so. Every five years I have a machine that people say, "Yeah, Ev, this is absolutely crazy”, but then after three or four years they'll say, "Hey, that's a retro technology you are running."

At the moment my machine is what used to be a powerful 10 core Intel i9 7900x Intel CPU, 64 gigs of RAM and a bunch of SSDs. It's still pretty snappy. It has a NVIDIA 1080Ti graphics card, which used to be top of the line back in the day, with a wide 34-inch monitor, a high resolution mouse and a mechanical tenkeyless keyboard.

I'm also somewhat anti-cordless. I have wires for everything. So my mic, my speakers, my keyboard, my mouse, even my internet connection, it's all wired. I prefer USB and Ethernet vs wifi or Bluetooth. I get the same predictable performance, same latency, extreme reliability, so I never have to apologize on a Zoom call that my AirPods are acting up today.

Describe your computer software setup

OS: Both. I dual boot. Everything work-related is Linux first. Unfortunately, Linux is not a great platform for photography, and as photography is my hobby, lots of tools that I use work better on Windows. I've been running on Ubuntu with Gnome, with an occasional switch back to Arch Linux.

Browser: Firefox.

Email: The previous company I started was called Mailgun, so I was an email guy for a long time. I used to host my own email server in my own basement back in the day, but then it became harder to do. I'm a strong believer in paying for a premium email service, because email is where most hacks happen. I've been moving around. I used to be on Rackspace's private hosted email, and then I was on Proton and Fastmail. At work, we use Google Apps for everything, so it's Gmail.

Chat: Slack.

IDE: Vi. That's another reason why I like Golang ecosystem so much because it works quite nicely with simple editors. You don't really need a complicated IDE to be productive in Go.

Source control: Git.

Describe your desk setup

I have a standing desk, but I never stand. I'm tall, so most desks just feel too low for me. It's a standing desk which I'm using as a sitting desk, but it's really high.

The desk of Ev Kontsevoy, Teleport

When coding

Daytime or nighttime? Nighttime.

Tea or coffee? Coffee.

Silence or music? Music, but without lyrics.

What non-tech activities do you like to do?

Sometimes I like to buy a broken or really old mechanical camera on eBay and then try to repair them.

Repairing those old shutters is actually quite fascinating because it's an extremely precise mechanical device, somewhat similar to watch movements. Their service manuals are rarely available, and everything is small and delicate.

It's basically a real-world puzzle that you have to solve, and it's incredibly satisfying when it starts to work. When you figure out what exactly is broken, even if it's just lubricating something, you're not going to soak the whole thing in oil, you have to be really surgical and precise to figure out which piece needs lubrication.

Find out more

Teleport is an open source access control plane. It was featured as an "Interesting Tool" in the Console newsletter on 16 Dec 2021 and 28 Jul 2022. This interview was conducted on 29 Nov 2021.