In this episode, we speak with Desigan Chinniah, previously at Mozilla, advisor to many web startups and now on the board of Tor. We discuss the evolution of web tech from websites to complex decentralized applications running on browser APIs, the competitiveness of the browser rendering engine versus the UX layer and how developers think about privacy. Does it live in browser settings, extensions or on the protocol core level?
- VS Code
- Homomorphic encryption
About Dees Chinniah
Desigan Chinniah is a creative technologist. After two decades of dot-com checks in, Dees now has a portfolio of advisory roles (Ably, Coil, Replay, SEDNA, Zama) and board positions (Ushahidi, The Tor Project). He invests early into diverse and under-represented minority founders and is a mentor at Design Club, Mozilla and Seedcamp
David: Welcome to the Console podcast. I'm David Mytton, co-founder of console.dev free weekly newsletter highlighting the best and most interesting tools for developers. In this episode, I speak with Desigan Chinniah, previously at Mozilla, advisor to many web startups and now on the board of Tor. We discuss the evolution of web tech from websites to complex decentralized applications running on browser APIs, the competitiveness of the browser rendering engine versus the UX layer and how developers think about privacy. Does it live in browser settings, extensions or on the protocol core level? We're keeping this to 30 minutes so let's get started. I'm here with Desigan Chinniah. Dees, Thanks for joining the Console podcast.
Desigan: It's great to be here, David. Thanks for inviting me.
David: Let's start with a brief background. Tell us a little bit about what you're currently doing and how you got here.
Desigan: What am I currently doing? I do a lot of things. You know me. Got my hands in lots of pies. Today I have a small portfolio of advisory roles, typically early stage technology companies up to series A, some of them series B. Give back to the not-for-profit world. I sit on a few boards. I'm on the board of for Ushahidi out in Kenya as well as the Tor project. I've started, at the beginning of this year, starting to look at some early stage angel investing if you want with a focus on helping underrepresented minority founders. That could be women, people of color and things happening on the African continent because I am African after all. I believe there's lots of opportunities in that part of the world.
David: Excellent. Well, let's go a little far back in your history to your time at Mozilla and talk a little bit about the web and really that's quite a broad topic but it feels like there's been an interesting development cycle over the past few years, maybe 15, 20 years ago, everything was on the web and you access things through the browser. Then in the years after the launch of the Apple app store there was much more of a push for native apps.
But now we are seeing a renaissance in web-first products and they're utilizing new browser capabilities and maybe Google Docs was the first there, but we're all used to using pretty advanced products now like Figma or a VC Code and they're all built on web tech. Why do you think the web's making a comeback and why do you think that's important?
Desigan: Well, the web's always been there. Even in the world of native or app stores as such unbeknown to most people and most people don't really care because they just want things that work. A lot of it is web wrapped within the native pieces. The web's always been there, the challenges I believe, having sat around lots of standards bodies in W3C meetings, et cetera, through the years you can't see me right now but there is gray hair, a lot to do with standards.
Native could just go so much faster. There were almost no rules. There was no sitting around a table for months, if not years on end to get something across the line from all the browsers to adopt it. Native just moved a lot quicker yet, even though that was the case, when you had to really get things working, let's say, ultimately you fell back to web technologies most of the time.
David: Why do you think that is? Is it the process of grading the web standards?
Desigan: Well, web standards is a long agious process. I think the interesting piece here is yes, there are long drawn out discussions over many workshops meetings, lots of travel, obviously not in a pandemic and actually that may have hindered some things in some ways and also moved things a bit faster in other ways. But I think that fascinating thing with standards is most of the time or almost every single time the end outcome, everyone agrees on. They all agree that something needs to go into a certain direction. It's then almost the, I don't know, semicolon, colon space, double space arguments that happen on how do you get to the end goal and that's where people have lots of differences of opinion and that's normally the part that drags along.
David: Then once the standard's been decided it's down to the browsers to implement it, assuming it's a web standard, of course?
Desigan: In theory, yes. It probably happens slightly differently as in often is the case. It has been browsers that I've seen to be driving a standard of some sort. Then the rule of thumb was, well, a browser or people within a browser vendor would come up with some cool idea, they'd start implementing it and they'd put it into their browser or browser engine, Gecko, Chromium, WebKit, then normally have it experimental and behind flags. Really your hope of getting it to becoming a standard was getting one other browser vendor to adopt some of that as well, or some of those APIs as well.
Because then you have a forcing function of the others going, are we going to miss out? We need to play along. That comes down to a lot of, let's say lobbying almost politics if you want, lots of discussions, lots of conversations, lots of sharing of code or pathways. But in more recent times it's not just browser vendors that are leading the way in terms of standards. You look at web payments, a lot of that came out of Shopify. There are other parts of the web now that have just as much influence as the browser vendors. That's a good thing because for the longest time it was felt that it was only if you were within Chrome or Firefox or Safari that you could lead and set up a standard.
David: Browsers have gone through quite an interesting cycle for the last couple of decades. I remember Mozilla Firefox was the alternative to Internet Explorer and now today Google Chrome is essentially the most popular browser but we're seeing the rise of alternatives like Brave on the desktop certainly and Safari is obviously popular on Apple devices because you have no choice. What's your take on the current ecosystem and is there space for these multiple browsers?
Desigan: Almost certainly. Users want something that they're comfortable with and convenient for their needs and every user is different. A browser or a gateway to the internet is where everyone's interactions mostly happens. You really want to get those consumers and once you get a consumer, having them getting to change to a different browser or gateway is really difficult. Once you do something that is a bad or not a great experience for a user and they do attempt something else and that gives them a better experience, getting them back is almost impossible as has been the case for the Firefoxs and the Operas of the world.
Before them, once you get down to single digit market share, it's really hard. The Braves of the world, even Microsoft Edge of the world have made some interesting choices in terms of their browser engine using Chromium. That obviously helps a ton with web compatibility because web developers are typically testing and curing and automation testing against Chromium and often forgetting about others. They will do it against WebKit or Safari because frankly of the market share, they know that they need to.
But other engines like Gecko or Servo feel the pain there. In some way also because of standards. When you talk to a developer, there's this assumption it's like, well, Firefox is great or Mozilla are great with standards. If my stuff works in Chrome or in Chromium, surely it works in Firefox as well so I just won't test that and that's not necessarily the truth. Good example is right now if we're using a service that of course I loaded up in Firefox and first thing it greeted me with was, you may want to use this in Brave, Chrome or Edge because it doesn't work.
David: That's given Google quite a lot of power really with the control of the rendering engine.
Desigan: Yeah. It was interesting I was talking to some folks that were core engineers at Chrome just yesterday, they're no longer at Chrome. They were like, "At the infancy of Chrome our intention was not to be almost as powerful as we are. It was just to create an alternative and to create an experience that we thought was lacking." They even started with WebKit as a rendering engine until they realized that they needed to create the Blink project and Chromium it just has gathered steam to such an extent that everyone just expects it.
But then you've talked about other browsers and there's a plethora of other things appearing. I think you and I think about a browser as a search bar, tabs, bookmarks, those sorts of pieces. There are some people that are taking that head on in terms of purely UI/UX. Does a browser need to look and feel like this? Is this just a mental model we have built up and we need to just almost crumple it up, throw it away and start again? There's a school of thought, that's great, but is UI and UX enough to get users to change?
If you don't come along with other things like speed and performance and all of those other pieces does the UX and UI, is that enough to change your mind? Therefore, people for example, Mighty app, I'm a Gecko user, I'm a Firefox Nightly user so I'm not a Chromium user which means that I'm still way back on the wait list for Mighty app, which is fair enough, but I did speak to one of the lead engineers in Mighty app, again just yesterday because they're former Mozilla, which is always interesting finding a Gecko person now working on Chromium.
The throwaway statement was something like, it's not that different. There are a few new things you have to learn and get your head around but it's not that different, but they're focused not on the UI/UX maybe today, but purely on performance. There are hundreds of millions, if not billions of people, using Chrome certain things are just not performant, can we create an experience that's very performant that will outperform Chrome and that's what they're going for and charging for it.
David: It's an interesting approach and it's quite different from how Brave and Microsoft Edge are thinking about it because the UIs are very similar when you compare them to Chrome but they are focusing on the features around that. For Brave there's a lot of integration with Web3 and in particular crypto and they have a focus on privacy and Microsoft are trying some different things with how they integrate Edge into the operating system and even building it on Linux. Is that the way that you see this going where the rendering engine is almost commoditized, everyone's focusing on the layer above?
Desigan: Projects like the Chromium project allow for that. Because on the baseline we can take the latest, we're on level footing with everyone else and like any good standards let the competition happen with features and speed and a whole lot of other things. But the starting point is we know everyone's starting from this point so let's look at the differentiators that consumers may desire and may want them to stick with us. Sometimes that may be the UI/UX. Other times it would be Web3 features, whether those are wallets or other forms of payments or payment trails, et cetera.
There are even some new browsers that have shown up that I don't know what they're doing yet. The browser company has raised a lot of money, I've not yet seen anything. There's even organizations in Europe or in UK, in Cambridge. I think there's Flow that's come about that's totally a new rendering engine. I haven't necessarily seen it yet. Then there's this blurry line which is interesting between certain things that are out, mental model is a web browser, then there's certain things that are, for example, let's call it a search engine but is a search engine a browser and is a browser a search engine. Then you get the emergence of something like Neva, private-by-design search but really when you use it on something like iOS or Android it's a browser, just the starting point is a search box.
David: Right. I suppose that's because almost all users start with the browser and everything, almost everything is now browser first, you are interacting with the web and all the services you use, all the platforms through the browser. There are very few native apps on desktop, although it's still different on mobile, is that the right way to think about it?
Desigan: Almost certainly. I'm looking at my desktop browser right now and there are only three active things open. One is a Spotify and Sonars because I had some music before we started chatting. The other two are Chrome and Firefox running. Those are the only applications on. I turned off my VPN but nothing else native running and almost never is.
David: This is particularly interesting given the recent innovation we're seeing in Apple's silicon and the performance they're getting there and they're really pushing native apps and the performance you can get there. But actually what matters is the performance of the rendering engine and the browser and how does that interact with the CPU.
Desigan: That's where Mighty is going with it. Can we really extract every ounce of performance out of that interaction rather than from a native perspective?
David: That makes sense. How should developers think about this when they're building their applications, web first, should they focus on the standards compliance to make sure they're able to hit that common denominator across multiple browsers? Or should they just target Chrome like a lot of people do?
Desigan: I want to see a healthier web, I would never say just adopt one browser engine. I'd like to see the browsers start differentiating a bit more, pushing features faster. One thing when you get down into web standards is speed. It's, slow and that is the reality. If you want interoperability and agnostic abstraction layers and protocols, rather than just platforms being built then you need lots of people to agree on the path forward and that just takes time.
Desigan: And the way the web is working today, you mentioned things like Figma and other things, these sorts of applications can release multiple times a day and you could get a whole new experience in the afternoon than you would in the morning. That's not the case with browsers even though browsers now release, what? Every few weeks, and if you're someone like me, a stable release every few weeks. Someone like me I'm using, for example, Firefox Nightly which means I'm getting the morning or last night's build and that's dangerous so the average person probably does not want to be doing that.
David: This leads us into the discussion around Web3 which at the moment mostly means blockchain and cryptocurrencies but should really be much more broadly defined as all types of decentralized protocols and local first. We've gone from Web1, the early days of websites to Web2, which was more of a centralized approach and the social platforms and now Web3. What's your take on that evolution and where we're going?
Desigan: I was thinking back about this actually a few days ago and imagine of just a few general conversations. Because of course, Web3 gets thrown around a lot. I started using Web1 and Web2 a bit as well in my conversations. We talk about my career at Mozilla and Firefox, that was really the second decade of my career which is what most people know me from. There was a decade before that which was, believe it or not, after the first [inaudible 00:16:23] or at us.com if you're not in the UK. Then there was early Skype and early PayPal and the BBC World Service and eBay.
Desigan: I was eBay lead front and engineer and I helped eBay go from table-based design to CSS which at the time was during Jeffrey Zelman and Andy Budd and a whole lot of those folks, I was part of that scenario. In some way I guess I worked on a design system before even Gina turned the coin design system because I call it a CSS toolbox, a toolkit or something. That was a bridge between engineers and designers. I definitely saw a lot of Web1 where people weren't afraid, they were ready to try anything and everything and just throw things around but it was a little bit chaotic and we embraced the chaos.
Let's just go and do it. We don't know who wants it or not. Let's do it and let's see what it is. That's a good thing and it'll carry on for a little while and there I say it'll evolve probably sooner than how we went from Web1 to Web2, it'll probably evolve into, that's Colin probably, someone will slate me for saying Web4, will be akin to web two.
There's a little bit more structure around it that people have a clear understanding of where things are better or the winds are and how do they grind and make those things even better and take them to the next level and you'll see almost bigger, better businesses and opportunities arise and this Web3 phase already solving lots of interesting things, but also bringing up lots of interesting things to consider, going to be a little bit of a messy phase. How long that lasts is a different scenario.
David: That makes sense. Do you think this will solve the problem of funding for content creators?
Desigan: Yes and no. Does a content creator need to be paid through some token or cryptocurrency? No. I'm sure if you just offer them good old fiat they'd be more than willing to do that. But will it help with discovery and new business models that they could monetize their content? Almost certainly. That I think is interesting. It gives more opportunity for content creators. It's almost more financial inclusion. Historically where content creators have made, let's say most of their revenue it's historically been on ad networks or the like and even then there was this discrimination depending on where you were in the world.
The amount of revenue you could generate from your CPMs or what have you, depending if you were in North America or you were in some part of Latin America or Asia or Africa was very different. It didn't matter even if you were creating good content. All of a sudden, I feel with Web3, it will just level the playing field. Now you can be anywhere in the world. If you're a gaming streamer or you're a poet or you are a writer, it just doesn't matter where you are. You could be earning just as much as someone in North America, in New York city or wherever the case may be just by producing good content and building up an audience.
And you wouldn't have to also then concern yourself about, "How am I getting this revenue? I'm in a country that US dollars, I just can't be remunerated in that." All of a sudden, well, maybe some of this cryptocurrency stuff is applicable. Maybe other things that Web3 will allow, make this more feasible for me to get paid without any hindrances. That starts becoming really interesting for creators.
David: Do you think the same applies for open source where we see a huge amount of software relying on libraries that are often built and maintained by either a few developers or maybe just volunteers?
Desigan: There's definitely been inroads into, let's say open source developers and maintainers, organizations, as well as individuals recognizing the fact that those are people that are helping to stand up their projects. Whether it's more commercial things GitHub sponsors or Open Collective, et cetera. I think there are things that have been explored that start helping. It does have a challenge where maybe it's only the top X percent that really get... I think the part that I've seen interesting thoughts is around almost package maintainers which are definitely totally disregarded.
Some of the biggest organizations in the world depend on small packages. Their entire system and service would fall down if this was not maintained and it's normally one person somewhere in the world that they don't even know where they are, or who they are that maintains this package for no thank you at all. Recently I've seen efforts like Flossbank by Joel Wasserman, which is really trying to solve for this and I think that's really interesting because the package maintainers are pretty important in this whole puzzle.
David: And the packages are often entirely separate from the software. You often see the binaries compiled then some packages for the common systems. But more often than not, you're using a package that's built by someone somewhere else, unrelated to the project and it works for six months then they have something else come up and you are bringing in this dependency and it's not been updated and that's a real problem.
Desigan: It really is. Someone like Joel could talk about this for hours. But what they're trying to do is say to an organization, attach your GitHub repo and others, we'll show you what your dependencies are. Some of them you'll be well aware of because it's people in your organization that maintain them or write them. Some of them are from larger communities of open source developers you'll be aware of. But did you know that there are all these other little dependencies that you probably have no idea that your service requires them? And hey, you should potentially think about remunerating these people in certain ways. One part is just making definitely the large organizations aware. Often they're just not even aware.
David: Where does privacy come into this? Where should that live? Because we're often assuming that users will make the choice and change settings in the browser, or maybe they install an ad blocker or perhaps they should live on the protocol level. What's your thinking on that?
Desigan: Obviously as someone that's lived in this world, it's part of my DNA but you also know that more and more so it's getting mainstream, just the thoughts of privacy, but that doesn't necessarily get you users. The old adage is convenience trumps all else. Thinking about this, most developers or engineering teams or product managers think about this because it is almost table stakes. Especially when you're surrounded by NOW-regulation and laws like GDPR, et cetera.
If you're not taking privacy of data seriously, then you're already in a terrible place. Then there's other things like ethics in technology and what have you. I definitely feel as a baseline everyone's already thinking about this stuff. It's just that how far do you want to take it? Doing this really well is hard and sometimes not as fast as you want it to be. It's really the teams that really question every single thing. Within Mozilla, we would spend way more time, 10, 20X, more time thinking about every aspect of, do we need this data? Is it important?
Even at the starting point, do we actually need it? If we need it, do we need it forever? Do we need it for 30 day? How do we delete it? How do we discard it? Those are really hard challenges and often big organizations want to move a lot faster so they just do the simplest possible thing. Of course that's great up until something happens. A data breach, you have more copies of all this data. You didn't really need it, but you thought, well, I wasn't going to spend five hours deciding which bits I needed, I'll just take everything.
When it turned out that you only needed one piece of data and even then you could have had it anonymized and your machine learning or analysis could have come from aggregate data, new techniques, some of the stuff I'm looking at with Rand out in Paris, new techniques like homomorphic encryption, make things interesting where you suddenly can do machine learning, data science, unencrypted data without decrypting it.
All of a sudden, well that means you don't have to have anything on the cloud. We're not likely going to have a breach. We don't have any data to lose. Can we have data that's local to users that's just for them, a copy for them? Then even further field which is some of the Web3 stuff is going in the direction of giving users the control of their data and allowing them to make choices on when to share and not share their data with services. There I say, even monetize their data if they so wanted to. That's the next level which really becomes interesting.
David: Of a developer this means the way they handle data is built into their technology that they're using so they, I suppose, have to make fewer choices because there's a lot of the decision being taken from them by the protocol or where the data's being stored and you get the privacy by default.
Desigan: There was a period of time, not long ago where organizations or services actually had to say, we are a privacy company. We are private-by-design. This is what we do. I feel like almost if anyone's needing to say that anymore, there's already some, why do you need to say that? Surely this is just what you do. Maybe it is the table stakes and anything that can help that from a protocol level, et cetera, is going to be welcomed by the engineer, the product manager, because then they can focus on the things that help them to compete and to differentiate and to really create better user experiences.
David: That makes sense. It's all by the convenience so for developers only have to make a few minor choices and they get all of the data governance and privacy just as part of the tool. It just makes it a lot easier to build that into whatever it is they're trying to get out to users.
Desigan: Yeah. The starting point is always going to be difficult. What are these rules? What are these regulations? What are these check boxes? I've got consultants coming in. This is painful. Once you get over that though, they're probably all going, "This is amazing. It was painful getting here, but now I see why it was important."
David: Absolutely. Well, before we wrap up, I have two lightning questions for you.
David: The first one is, are there any interesting dev tools you're playing around with at the moment?
Desigan: I haven't really been pushing code and viewing source much recently, but I'm still close enough to the whole ecosystem. There's also this new scenario which you're seeing probably with console is dev tools can even go out and raise venture money and investments. Some of them I'm helping former colleagues with. More recently Replay, which is looking at time travel debugging, super interesting. I watched it as a pet project within Mozilla, Banding around for a few years and now it's out of Mozilla and picking up steam with some serious money behind it.
That's great for Brian and Jason. A lot of them touch former Mozilla colleagues. A few weeks ago, I was catching up with Adam Stevenson who's now the product lead over at Backstage, which is from Spotify which is rather interesting allowing large engineering teams really sort up their internal documentation and code samples and demos which I think is fascinating. Regularly catch up slightly older, but catch up with Anil Dash and Jesse von Doom over at Glitch and I think the Glitch folks are really thinking about some fascinating new things coming so watch that space.
Beyang and I caught up a few years ago in Sourcegraph and it was only until he told me about it. "Why can't you do search on your code repositories?" Then I was like, "Yeah, why can't you?" He is like, "Exactly. That's why we're solving for this." Some of these things don't from the outset feel and look very sexy then when you look at it, you go, "Oh my God. Why haven't we had this before." And talking collaboration it's one I just came across this week and probably because they raised some funding, but Eraser, which is collaboration but for engineering teams that are putting up their schematics and their architecture designs and what have you and collaborating it in a live space, we've seen it for Figma and we've seen it for other things, why not for as you build up and architect your service or product for engineering teams that look fascinating in itself? Those are some of the few.
David: Then the second question is what is your current tech setup? What's your daily driver for your hardware and what software do you use?
Desigan: Outside of a pandemic, I'm not really on my laptop a lot. That's slightly beaten up MacBook Pro, 30 an inch, which interesting enough in recent weeks has had a sticky space bar, which is quite funny because you take space bars for granted up until they work then don't work at different times of the day. Which I think is apple saying to me that I should go get this shiny new 14 inch MacBook Pro which does look rather nice. But I spend most of my time on my iMac desktop in front of me.
Most things like I think we earlier discussed, run in the browser. The only things that I periphery to that I'm looking at again on my screen is probably some music apps like Spotify and Sonar, I have a Sonar set up throughout the house which is nice and it just works. Coming back to convenience, just working. Little things, services like Moon, which is a really small project but it allows you to easily space your browser windows or application windows on your desktop. Split screen, half a screen, quarter screen, what have you just very quickly.
Desigan: That's something I use all the time. On the mobile front I'm an active iOS user. I've got all sorts of devices around me but I just find myself to be way more productive on iOS than on Android. Yes, I have given Android many chances I just can't seem to be productive on it. That's probably about it.
David: That's all we've got time for today. Where can people find you online?
Desigan: Where can people find me online? The easiest is Twitter @cyberdees which is a very old handle but putting in @cyberdees on most things online will find me, that tends to be my online username. Then my first name, last name are desiganchinniah.com probably leads you to all the other places.
David: Excellent. Well, thanks for joining the Console podcast.
Desigan: Thanks a lot, David. It's been fun.
David: Thanks for listening to the Console Devtools podcast. Please let us know what you think on Twitter. I'm @davidmytton and you can follow @console.dev. Don't forget to subscribe and rate us in your podcast player. And if you are playing around with or building any interesting dev tools, please get in touch. Our email's in the show notes. See you next time.
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