In this episode we speak with Jean Yang, CEO of Akita Software, an API observability startup, which she founded after leaving her role in academia as a computer science professor. We discussed the software heterogeneity problem, why it isn't better to rewrite in rust and how the language wars have actually been won. We also explore how the big fight today is about infrastructure and why microservices are the solution to the ever-growing complexity of software.
- Taming Go’s Memory Usage, or How We Avoided Rewriting Our Client in Rust
- The Everything store
- Zoom Bachelor - https://www.zoombachelor.com/
- Zoom bachelorette
About Jean Yang
Jean Yang is the founder and CEO of Akita Software, a developer tools company that is bringing structure to observability. Previously, Jean was a professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University. Jean has a PhD from MIT, holds software tools patents from work at Microsoft Research and Facebook, and was selected as one of the MIT Technology Review's 35 Innovators Under 35 in 2016.
David: Welcome to the Console Podcast. I'm David Mytton, co-founder of console.dev. free weekly newsletter highlighting the best and most interesting tools for developers. If you've listened to season one, you'll be familiar with Jean Yang, who rejoins me for the final episode of this season of the Console Devtools Podcast. Jean is the CEO of Akita Software, an API observer as a startup, which she founded after leaving her role in academia as a computer science professor. We discussed the software heterogeneity problem and why it isn't better to rewrite in rust, how the language wars have actually been won. The big fight today is about infrastructure and why microservices are the solution to the ever growing complexity of software. I'm here with Jean Yang. Jean, it was great to work with you on season one. Welcome back to the new format for season two.
Jean: I'm super excited to be back.
David: For our listeners who haven't yet gone back through season one, tell us a little about what you are currently doing and how you got here.
Jean: I'm the founder and CEO of a company called Akita Software. We're going after the goal of one click observability. You can call it no code for observability. But the idea is software systems are getting more complex, it's getting harder and harder to understand them, and we don't want people to need to learn a whole new expertise just to understand are their endpoints falling down? What endpoint is slow? What's going on across all of their APIs?
David: Makes sense. This is really about making easy for developers, which kind of ties into what you've been talking about a lot around developer experience. What does that actually mean?
Jean: I think one group of developers that I've been talking a lot about recently is people who don't work at the fangs, the Facebooks, Amazons, Netflixes of the world. They're not at a company where there are whole teams of people. Whose whole job it is to make sure that developer productivity is good, and that there's the tooling in place, or there's a whole team of people where you can offload observability expertise. I've been talking about how process or teams like that often looks a lot different than what the influencers are saying, I think in the observability space. It's not surprising that this happens is the people with the most expertise or the people with the most developer privilege, shall we say, come up with techniques. That's where a lot of the innovation happens.
The other thing is if you're just showing all of what's going on across APIs, that's wire shark that exists already, and so how can you model what's going on? But how this relates to my views on developer experiences, I think that tools can do a much better job of meeting developers where they are. They can do a much better job of meeting, quote, unquote, real developers where they are. I'm not saying that your Facebook developer isn't real, but that's somewhat akin to your influencer with the hair team and the makeup team and the stylist sending them, your Balenciaga clothes, and then they just like snap a photo, I woke up like this. No, your photographer did that.
David: They can choose the best tools or they can just choose to rewrite things, kind of arbitrarily and spin up a new team just to focus on something just because.
Jean: Exactly. They can choose rewrites. They can choose tools that are high cost to adoption. Let's take any of the hot new tools. How do you get that to work with your legacy code base? Either you spend a lot of time figuring out how that interfaces, you spend a lot of time migrating or you don't adopt at all. If you have teams to burn, not saying you're literally burning your teams, but you can afford options one or two or three. Everybody else, they have option three.
David: What do you think of the idea of one tool to rule them all like AWS, providing all of your infrastructure services rather than what I suppose a lot of people do, cobble together, lots of different things.
Jean: One tool to rule them all is a great business dream. I think if you end up being a monopoly like AWS, maybe that's achievable, and they're in it for the long game. I think for most other things, I joked about a term I called Xenos migration where migrations... They're not really discrete things if they start at all. That's a big if, because something I noticed among teams that we work with and talk to is they'll have the top of mind things that they're doing right now. And then they'll have the migrations that they want next quarter or two quarters from now. It seems a like for a lot of teams, there's always some migration that's consistently the same number of quarters away, which I guess is maybe not quite as migration, it's something else.
I don't know that AWS is winning there. Maybe I should say yet I don't know. Time will tell. But I think for any other company that's not AWS if you think about how they're adopting software, let's say the migration takes in the years, is that company still going to even be dominant by the time the migration is finished? Or is it just time to turn around and start migrating something else? Really unclear. People love the narrative of silver bullets.
They love the narrative that there's going to be one language to rule them all, and we're finally migrating onto that language, we're finally migrating onto that infrastructure. But the reality is if we look historically, that's never happened. There's been heterogeneity across programming languages, infrastructures, tools. What happened is that I think believing in one language to rule them all means not believing in progress, because if you really believe that tools have frozen in time and that the set of assumptions that is the starting set of assumptions for iterating on a tool or a language or something like that is going to be the best historically that you ever do, given all conditions, sure, then there's one tool to rule them all.
David: It applies to the idea of big rewrites then as well, because developers often like to propose that as the way to solve problems of legacy code. That they just don't like or tech debt and complexity. I assume the same challenges applies there.
Jean: I think if you look at most cities, the houses don't get rebuilt every few decades. One analogy I like to make is a software system is like an organically evolving rainforest. Sometimes I guess you have controlled burns of your forest. Maybe not the rainforest. Maybe I'm mixing my forest here. But you don't raise your whole rainforest and start over most of the time. I think that when software is small, people were in more of a planned garden mode. Now software is like a rainforest or a city. I think the most interesting cities have layers and layers of centuries of history. There are cities that were known for their planned nature that were beautiful because they were planned at some time. I think now it's getting pretty clear those cities are frozen in the century where they were planned.
David: Startups had the luxury of making that initial plan, but it always changes as you build, right?
Jean: Especially if you want to modernize. I think if... The best made plans for knowing what you know, knowledge progresses, the tools progress. Do you really want to be stuck in that?
David: How do you advise developers to deal with that? Because they often don't like the legacy code and that's the reason why you're having to read someone else's code. How can you shift your mindset to actually get comfortable with working with these old systems?
Jean: Well, first of all, heterogeneity, it's a reality. Developers need to accept and embrace heterogeneity when they're thinking about their system and they're thinking about that hot new tool. That's not going to be forever. Maybe you're new, maybe you have complete control right now, maybe you expect that hot new tool to evolve. That's a lot of ifs, because for that tool to evolve, what does it mean? It means the tool itself needs to evolve to the needs of all your software. The community needs to grow at the rate of software progress, the libraries, the tooling, everything. That's a lot of things to come together.
To me, the more realistic alternative is to accept heterogeneity, design, and plan for heterogeneity. I think actually microservices are a great way to accept heterogeneity because they allow you to quarantine your code in certain ways. Put it behind an API, call it across the network, call it a day. But our application level tooling... Most developer tooling is application level when it comes to debugging, when it comes to managing complexity, when it comes to doing a lot of things. That's getting outdated because most of those tools assume homogeneity.
Jean: One thing that's hot right now is code search. Code search works best in homogeneous environments. It works best if you assume you can understand the code. If you plan for heterogeneity and you plan for the next thing I'm going to talk about, needing to accept, which is codes should be block boxes. That becomes really hard. Why do I think code should not just be accepted as heterogenus but block boxes, is because of the rise of APIs, the rise of low code, the rise of no code. If we look at all the trends that are big in software right now, they are pushing us to think of code as block boxes.
You don't want to do payments called Stripe. You don't want to do SMS called Twilio. You don't want to write part of your thing, or you have non-developers working system with you, use Zapier. You don't see any of this code. This is functioning with your other systems. We have Lambdas that are being invoked from Zapier, they're interacting with other things. They're interacting using data that is also being invoked with Zapier. I recently discovered that Zapier is apparently my programming tool of choice based on how many days a month I spend engaging with it. I have a computer science PhD. I think that people should give up on understanding all of their code. They already don't understand the actual source code for everything they run. It's only going to get worse. That's what led me to work on observability, and observability in a block box way, because that looking at what is, looking at how do we measure, how do we understand the systems that we have, to me is the logical way to deal in the face of heterogeneity and code being block boxes.
Our way is not the only way. I think that there are tools that help you get more mileage out of your APIs, out of your code as you're writing it. But I think tools that are cross language, that are natively cross language, and what I mean is they were designed to be language agnostic, cross language tools, I think that's going to become more and more important as we go. The more language agnostic tools are the better they're going to scale to the complexity of modern software.
David: Right. Because if you are consuming various APIs, they're all written in different languages and you may not understand all of them. Just switching to microservices that brings... It kind of shifts the problems, doesn't it? Because you then have all these issues around observability and understanding what those systems are doing and what you're depending on. How do you think about all those challenges, and I suppose solving them?
Jean: Great question. I've written a bit about what I call abstraction tools versus complexity embracing tools. One of my views on developer experience is that we focused on abstraction tools. That comes with a set of things that I'll talk about. The next generation of developer experience needs to focus on complexity-embracing tools. How do we help developers accept and deal with the mess that is their software systems? What I mean by abstraction tools is full automation tools. This idea you can call an API, makes your problems go away. You can use this low code tool, makes your problems go away. Those are great individually.
What the software industry has picked up from general, I guess tech startups did start in the software industry. But the general startup culture is we demo, we show our value very, very quickly. If it takes few years to get into production properly, who are you? But if you look at the tools that are actually helping developers embrace complexity, they are engaging with the complexity of the full system. They may not demo. Well, I don't know, show me a debugger with an awesome demo.
I think that if you have all the context of the language and the bugs and whatever environments you're working with, sure. A debugger, a demo can be jaw dropping. But most of these tools are not sexy. I think that to properly embrace this, we first need to change what people focus on. Because if software teams are spending 95% of their early stage time on the demo, sure, you're not going to get work on the complexity embracing stuff. And then I also think that it's just a hard problem if you're fully automating something away. The design problem is much easier, you own the whole space of what can happen. If you're engaging with someone's mess, that's a hard problem.
David: It takes a long time to get to that end point. Often people shift to a new technology before they've reached that goal. Very few environments that have that full debugger now, and often people are just putting print statements or console.log.
How much should the programming language do for the developer? As one side, you've got C, which lets you do absolutely everything, and there are potential risk in that. And then the other side is rust where there are a lot of guardrails. What do you think about the trade offs and what should languages do?
Jean: I'll zoom out and say that I think that the language wars have been fought and they've been won and some have been lost. I think the application layer is just becoming increasingly small piece of the whole thing. I think that languages can do a lot for people. The tools you have can do a lot for you. Memory management really increase productivity by a huge amount among programmers, but there's still people who need the power tools of managing their own memory. I think rust is a beautifully designed language. I think it's done a really good job of being usable, being friendly.
It's shocking to me that so many people would go back and do manual memory management. I don't think it's necessary. In fact, one of my team members, Mark Gritter recently wrote a blog post on how we avoided switching to rust just by doing better performance engineering in our garbage collective language Go. This is a bit of fired situation, but my kind of controversial view on rust is that most people don't need it. When the trends move on, a lot of people are going to be very happy they have memory management again. But going back to what I said before, I don't know, I think these language war stuff are becoming a bit of a... Well, distraction is kind of patronizing. But I think they're kind of a distraction. Because look, our software system... There's so much going on with our software systems.
There's infrastructure as code. Infrastructure is becoming complex enough that it is programs now. Isn't that nuts? If we look at the place that had the simplicity, that code historically had, that is infrastructure now. This means we've zoomed a whole level out about what's happening. We're seeing infrastructure wars playing out, except I would say still not with the level of enthusiasm and vitreal as a language war surprisingly.
I once watch a documentary about how, in history in general, there's a lot of... There's where the hype is, there's where people's attention is, and then there's power shifting quietly behind the scenes. That power is happening in the infrastructure wars right now. It's happening with the service mesh, it's happening with API protocols, it's happening with everything that feels less sexy and less important than the language wars I put my jobs in the language wars daily. I am at fault here too. But there's a lot of quiet power shifting. Who owns infrastructure and who owns data about your production deployments? That's who is getting to call the shots about the tooling of the future. It's not the languages, it's not the language creators, it is for sure, not the steering committees of the languages. I don't know. I would love to see more fights around that
David: Is that vendors fighting over the different components of the infrastructure? Is it GCP versus AWS or is it specific components much lower than that with the different vendors?
Jean: It's everything. It's who owns the cloud. It's who owns your observability data. Right now I think there's interesting fragmentation across your observability stack. Almost everyone I encounter who uses observability and monitoring, they have an entire stack. There's Splunk, there's Datadog, there's Grafana, there's Prometheus. No one has won it all. No one owns the whole thing. There are various plays that, well, just give all of your data to us, we'll take all of it. There are these conversations about how data rules everything and how most of what's interesting about your software systems happen in production.
I think people spend a lot of time thinking about why aren't my software tools better? The people who call the shots don't care. The people who are going to call the shots in the future are the people who own your monitoring data, the people who own your cloud. Push back against them now vote with your dollars, with your feet. Who do you trust to control your developer experience in the future? This is who you're empowering to do so.
David: Do you think that's a war between proprietary/cloud and open source? Is that the battle?
Jean: I don't think it's between proprietary and open source at the moment. David, we've talked about this before, but I think that the people with the capital and the army of developers to fight these wars are all proprietary. Some of them well, at least has open source. Open source is a strategy for them. But at the end of the day, it's enterprise companies versus enterprise companies determining the future of developer experience.
David: Does interoperability solve all that? You've written a little bit about this and why it's important. Can you elaborate a bit on that?
Jean: If you think about tech stacks and you think about where languages exist, I think that a lot of people still think of programming language primarily as the application layer. But what about SQL? That's also a programming language. What about your infrastructure as code? That is also a programming language. The fact that these are programming languages is important because program mobility means complexity. When you have complexity across all of your layers, when you have your layers that are complex needing to play well with each other, that's where interop across different components, interop across your layers to some degree becomes very, very important.
David: Everything is becoming so much more complicated. Just trying to build a very simple well application that has a front end and maybe a couple of APIs, just the number of frameworks you've got to choose from and all the different options available, it's quite overwhelming.
Jean: I think before, sure, when you had mud huts, you just wash your mud hut away if something was wrong with it. But you don't wash whole cities built on brick and stone and concrete away. You accept it. You grow on top of it. People need places to live. Because the other thing is once you've built some of these structures that are permanent, people come to rely on them and people come to base their other plans and their daily routines and all that around them. You can't just rip things out anymore. Planning a city is a very different game than building mud huts and coordinating among small groups of people.
David: Does that mean that there's to your roles for the developer. First one is connecting these different services together and just making sure they're delivering on whatever the business goal is or the application goal. And then the second one is specialization using their experience as an engineer to solve a very specific problem that can't be solved by one of these plugable tools.
Jean: That's a really interesting point. I think there has been a lot more specialization among developers. I also think that there's more than ever a role for the glue developer, the full stack developer that's really good at putting things together and orchestrating it and doing whatever it takes to make it work. But back to the specialization point, I've been having some really interesting conversations where I came up in an era where people were still learning assembly as one of their first formal education languages that they were taught. Systems programming was very important. Everybody needed to know it in some sense because you needed to engage with low level systems. Things to even make whatever you were building perform enough.
I remember in my machine learning class in college, I wrote all of my programs in C. No one in machine learning is doing that in C anymore. The reason I was doing it is because we didn't have that many assignments, but they were all graded on, I guess how well we understood the models we built. I was just able to run my models way more times than my classmates who had written in OCaml or Python or anything like that. I was just able to collect way more data because I was writing in C. Not even C++, C. I don't think that's necessary anymore because... The decade I was in school, Google came up with all of this infrastructure. That was the decade they made MapReduce, they made Bigtable, they made the Chubby file system. They had to build all that from scratch.
Jean: People working on search engine had to do all that to make things work. Same thing with Amazon. I was reading The Everything Store. My first reaction, I will admit this publicly, was why didn't they just use, "Oh wait, they built AWS to build this." People buy infrastructure now. They buy their cloud, they buy their file system, they buy their data stores, they buy their data streams. This stuff is not so necessary to understand how to build yourself. Systems programming in itself has become a specialization. That's different specialization than machine learning. That's a different specialization than web. Yes, there's definitely a lot of specializations. And then there's the rise of the powerful generalists. Before if you were so generalists that you weren't deep into systems programming, there wasn't much you can do. Now there's a ton you can do.
David: Why do you think the interesting innovation is happening then if a lot of these problems at scale have been solved and then our APIs, you can just buy in kind infrastructure services, where we're seeing the innovation in tech.
Jean: I think those will have some amount of traction as well. Will those win? I don't know. This probably will come back to haunt me if I say, look, heterogeneity is inevitable and there's always going to be new things. I think things like that will always have some amount of market share. I think that there will always be new adopters to adopt it. Whether they get replaced by a new, new thing, I don't know.
David: Well, before we wrap up then I've got two lightning questions for you. The first one is what interesting dev tools are you playing around with at the moment?
Jean: I realized that I'm a Zapier. I'm a Zapier primary programmer these days. I'll give you an idea of what my role is. Now I spend a lot of time talking with developers, understanding what they want. My main role at my company is really product person part, developer advocate part. Just a person who engages with a developer. A lot of my time isn't spent developing these days. For our main command line agent or how we collect data, that I don't really touch that stuff. It doesn't make a lot of sense for me to touch that stuff. But I have a lot of other things that I manage, like our developer sign ups, developer onboarding, keeping track of what developers are up to.
Jean: We're also trying to build our team. Being able to programmatically manage data about who's out there, who's out there in spaces we're interested in, how can we find them easier? A lot of my work is basically calling APIs using Zapier, and putting together workflows. I could have written a series of scripts to do this, but Zapier gives me a bunch of tooling that I wouldn't have otherwise. They let me rerun. They tell me when there are errors, they give me summaries of what got run. I get emailed updates. I get slack updates. The team gets updates whenever things happen. I used to scoff a lot about low code for people who knew how to code. I used to scoff a lot about, I don't even need types anymore. I know how to do this stuff. Here I am realizing that my primary tool is a no code, low code tool. I've also tried out some other ones.
Jean: I met this company called Clay through investors I'm trying to dig into. Who's starring us on GitHub? Who's following me on Twitter? That kind of thing. Through loading things into Clay spreadsheets. That I would say, what I want to do is still somehow in between... I've tried community tools like Orbit. I think that what I want right now is still more specialized than that. I've been trying to see how I can do it with Clay. I might have to Zapier it myself. But I think the most surprising thing is I went from teaching myself languages like Haskell and Idris in my free time to just doing no code.
Jean: I just use Zapier. We pay for the Zapier that allows for more stuff. I'll say I have a whole other set of things. I use type form for my forms. I don't like code the front end and backend for my forms, but I pay for the type form that lets me have all of the complex conditionals and jumps and stuff like that. Because I'm like, well, this is a program. And then I debug it like a program. I test it. I test all the corner cases. I do all the stuff. Sometimes I'm like, how does someone who isn't a very experienced engineer use this stuff, there's a lot of corner cases here.
David: That's all in the browser. Right? But when you are actually coding your Vim user.
Jean: I'm a Vim user. But I only use Vim for random Python scripts I run to do stuff now. I will say I've just been in the browser with my low code tools. But those low code tools, if you want to do crazy stuff and if you want to do stuff that pushes the boundaries of your tools, which I think I've always tried to do no matter what I've programmed in, you still have to apply engineering.
David: Excellent. Well, that's all we've got time for today. Where can people find you online?
Jean: I'm mostly on Twitter. I'm @jeanqasaur on Twitter. I've been doing a weekly Twitch livestream as well, called PLTalk. But if you follow me on Twitter, you can get that too. I'm the same handle on Twitch.
David: Thanks for coming back on the Console Podcast. Good to chat again.
Jean: Thanks, David. Great to talk as usual.
David: Thanks for listening to the Console Devtools Podcast. That's it for season two. Let us know what you think and who you'd like to hear from in the next season. I'm @davidmytton on Twitter. You can also follow @console.dev. Don't forget to subscribe and rate us in your podcast player. We'll see you later in the year.
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